Input Devices | Week 13

Group Assignment

What is an Input Device?

  • An input device, such as a Micro Controller, is a piece of equipment or a component that provides data and control signals to an information processing system. Sensors, cameras, and other input devices are examples of input devices.

  • Analog Sensors

  • Different types of analogue sensors create a continuous analogue output signal and are referred to as analogue sensors. The analogue sensors give a continuous output signal that is proportional to the measurand. Analog sensors come in a variety of shapes and sizes; practical examples include accelerometers, pressure sensors, light sensors, sound sensors, temperature sensors, and so on.

  • Accelerometers

  • Accelerometers are analogue sensors that detect changes in position, velocity, direction, shock, vibration, and tilt via sensing motion. Based on the range of configurations and sensitivities, these analogue accelerometers are divided into distinct categories.

  • Light Sensors

  • Light Dependent Resistor

  • Light sensors are analogue sensors that are used to detect the amount of light striking the sensors. These analogue light sensors are further divided into photo-resistor, Cadmium Sulfide (CdS), and photocell varieties. The light dependent resistor (LDR) can be used as an analogue light sensor to turn on and off loads automatically based on the amount of daylight falling on it. The LDR's resistance increases with lower light levels and diminishes with higher light levels.

  • Sound Sensors

  • Analog Sound Sensor

  • Sound sensors are analogue sensors that are used to detect sound levels. For sound level sensing, these analogue sound sensors convert the amplitude of the acoustic volume of the sound into an electrical voltage. This approach necessitates some circuitry and makes use of a microcontroller and a microphone to generate an analogue output signal.

  • Pressure Sensor

  • Piezoelectric Sensor

  • Analog pressure sensors are analogue sensors that are used to measure the amount of pressure applied to a sensor. The amount of applied pressure is proportional to the analogue output signal produced by the pressure sensor. These pressure sensors are utilised in a variety of applications, including piezoelectric plates and piezoelectric sensors for electric charge generation. These piezoelectric sensors are a form of pressure sensor that may create an analogue output voltage signal proportional to the applied pressure.

  • Analog Temperature Sensor

  • Temperature sensors, both digital and analogue, are commonly accessible. Thermistors are the most common analogue temperature sensors. Thermistors come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they're utilised for a variety of purposes. Thermistor is a temperature-sensitive resistor used to monitor temperature changes. The electrical resistance of the thermistor increases as the temperature rises. Similarly, as the temperature drops, so does the resistance. It can be found in a number of temperature sensor applications.

  • A thermistor-based temperature control system is an example of an analogue temperature sensor in action. This project is used to keep a room at a consistent temperature. A temperature control system block diagram includes a bulb (which depicts a cooler), a temperature sensor or thermistor, and a relay.

  • Digital Sensors

  • Digital sensors are electronic or electrochemical sensors that perform data conversion and transmission in a digital format. These digital sensors are replacing analogue sensors because they can overcome analogue sensors' shortcomings. The digital sensor is made up of three main parts: the sensor, the cable, and the transmitter. The signal measured by digital sensors is instantly transformed to a digital signal output within the digital sensor. And this digital signal is digitally delivered through cable. Different types of digital sensors exist to address the drawbacks of analogue sensors.

  • Digital Accelerometers

  • Pulse-width modulation is the way of generating variable frequency square wave output from a digital accelerometer. The pulse width modulated accelerometer takes data at a constant rate, usually 1000 Hz (but this can be configured by a user based on the IC used). The acceleration value is proportional to the output PWM signal, pulse width, or duty cycle.

  • Digital Temperature Sensor

  • igital Temperature Sensor DS1620¶

  • The DS1620 is a digital temperature sensor that offers 9-bit temperature data for devices. With its three thermal alarm outputs, it functions as a thermostat. THIGH is driven high if the device's temperature is more than or equal to the user-defined temperature TH. The TLOW is driven high if the device's temperature is less than or equal to the user-defined temperature TL. The TCOM is driven high if the device's temperature exceeds TH and remains high until it falls below that of TL.

  • Objectives of the Group Assignment:

  • Probe an input device's analog levels and digital signals

  • Input Device that we probed for it's analog and digital signals:

  • IR sensor
  • Potentiometer

  • To probe the digital signal of an input device, we connected IR sensor to the Input devices board and activated the sensor after programming the board through arduino IDE. First connected the board to DSO (Digital storage oscilloscope) and probed in to sensor's digital waves as shown below.

  • Later to probe the analog levels of an input device, we connected potentiometer to the Input devices board and progammed the board for analog read through arduino IDE. After that we connected the board to DSO (Digital storage oscilloscope) and probed in to sensor's analog levels waves as shown below.

  • Group Assignment Link

  • Error

    Why didn't I use the Attiny 1614?

  • I first made the board of Attiny1614, then the IC of that board flew away and if that IC was not in stock then I made Attiny3216. And if I had to work on another IC, I worked further on Attiny3216.

  • And if I worked on the next Attiny44 and my Bluetooth didn't work, I didn't have the IC cloud this time then I saw everything this time and chose the IC.

  • Individual Assignment

  • Make my final Project Board this week.

  • Microcontroller Use Attiny3216.

  • Attiny3216

    What is the Attiny3216?

  • The ATtiny3216 line of microcontrollers contains an 8-bit AVR® processor with a hardware multiplier that runs at up to 20 MHz and comes in 20-pin packages with up to 32 KB Flash, 2 KB SRAM, and 256B of EEPROM. The series makes advantage of the most up-to-date Core Independent Peripherals with low-power capabilities.

  • Features:


  • AVR® 8-bit CPU
  • Running at up to 20 MHz
  • Single-cycle I/O access
  • Two-level interrupt controller
  • Two-cycle hardware multiplier

  • Memories:

  • 2/16 KB In-system self-programmable Flash memory
  • 256 bytes EEPROM– 2 KB SRAM
  • Write/erase endurance:
  • 1.Flash 10,000 cycles

    2.EEPROM 100,000 cycles

  • Data retention: 20 years at 85°C

  • Attiny3216 Pinout.

    Configuration Summary:

  • Reference Link

  • Limit switch

  • I have used the limit switch inside the input sensor.

  • What are Limit Switches?

  • Limit switches are used to automatically detect or sense the presence of an object or to monitor and indicate whether the movement limits of that object have been exceeded. The original use for limit switches, as implied by their name, was to define the limit or endpoint over which an object could travel before being stopped. It was at this point that the switch was engaged to control the limit of travel.

  • How does a limit switch work?

  • A standard limit switch used in industrial applications is an electromechanical device that consists of a mechanical actuator linked to a series of electrical contacts. When an object (sometimes called the target) comes in physical contact with the actuator, the actuator plunger’s movement results in the electrical contacts within the switch to either close (for a normally open circuit) or open (for a normally closed circuit) their electrical connection. Limit switches use the mechanical movement of the actuator plunger to control or change the electrical switch's state. Similar devices, such as inductive or capacitive proximity sensors, or photoelectric sensors, can accomplish the same result without requiring contact with the object. Hence, limit switches are contact sensors in contrast to these other types of proximity sensing devices. Most limit switches are mechanical in their operation and contain heavy-duty contacts capable of switching higher currents than those of alternative proximity sensors.

  • Datasheet link Link

  • Advantages and Limitations of Limit Switches

  • The designs are generally simple and straightforward
  • They work well in almost any industrial setting
  • They exhibit high accuracy and repeatability
  • They are low power consumption devices
  • They can switch high-inductance loads
  • They can be used to switch multiple loads
  • They are simple to install
  • They are rugged and reliable
  • They typically have heavy-duty electrical contacts meaning they can be used to switch higher levels of current directly without the need to utilize secondary relay control
  • Limit switches also have several limitations, which means they may not be suited for every application:
  • Because they rely on mechanical action, they generally are used in equipment that operates at relatively low speeds
  • They are contact sensors, meaning they must make physical contact with the target for them to operate
  • The nature of their mechanical design means that the devices are subject to mechanical wear or fatigue over time and will need eventual replacement

  • Reference Link

  • From this video, I learned how the limit switch works.

  • Eagle

  • Make my Final Project Board in Eagle.

  • Add Attiny3216 ic library in Eagle.

  • Download Attiny3216 library

  • Attiny3216 IC.

  • add UPDI connector.

  • Limit switch connector.
  • And One Pull down resistor add.

  • Schematic diagram.

  • Milling machine Video

    Soldering Photo


  • My Attiny3216 board programmed from the UPDI programmer.

  • Download Board "MegaTinyCore"

  • Then Select Board Attiny3216.

  • Select Chip Attiny3216

  • Select programmer.

  • Upload Code

  • My button or my input device has pin number 3.

  • Final Output Video

  • The one that is my TX board sends a signal to the RX board.

  • It sends an ON signal to the LED when I press the button and an off-signal when the button is not pressed.

  • Ultrasonic Sensor ( Distance Sensor) using Attiny44 Board

    I have done input based assignment which had push button based input which was not mounted on the board so a new assigment of taking variable input i have document here.

  • Input as Ultrasonic Sensor ( HC SR 04 ) for reading distance.

  • For making this project I have used my Hello World Board Week 7.

  • In this input project I have used the pinput shows below.
    sensor has trigger and echo is singal which I have connected to pin 4 & pin 5 of ATTiny44.

  • Electronics Design | Week 07 Link

  • Circuit Photo

    Fianl Output Video

    Original File All

  • .SCH board
  • .BRD Board
  • .BRD Board
  • Safety Switch by Parejiya Jaydeep is licensed under CC BY-ND 4.0