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Final Project

construktion site mill

or Outdoor mill

I would like to have an easily transportable, space-saving CNC router that also enables large things to be milled. Preferably panel materials made of wood.

for the garden

I would also like to take it into the garden and work with it there. I am aware that it will then be a fine weather milling machine, but in this case I don't need any extra space in which to mill or in which the milling machine is located.

and for me

It would be great to put a stack of wooden materials in the garden and mill it down from top to bottom. Maybe for furniture, outdoor furniture, installations, pavilions, fab houses… ..whatever.

looks like

I am thinking of a fully enclosed moving/rolling gantry that has no mechanical connection with the substructure.

to make

Something big - outdoor

computer aided design

first cad sketches

First CAD drawings in which direction the implementation of the sketched ideas could go.

The marked area in the front shows the working area of ​​the milling. The two behind it are common plate sizes.

closed rolling gantry

The gantry is a closed box in which the milling spindle in this case is moved on the Y-axis via a rack, gear wheel and guide rail. The Y axis is guided with fixed wheels on a bearing axis.

mill beyond the panel edge

An interesting option is certainly to let the milling cutter run the panel edge.

In this way, the material can also be cut beyond the long sides.

problems with pockets

With the drive in this form, pockets can only be milled in the places where no wheels run over the wooden materials. Simple 8-10 mm grooves should simply be rolled over.

I first drew the cnc milling machine as a quarter and then mirrored it. It may well be that I can get there with fewer motors and toothed belts.

It is also possible to build the milling machine / gantry as long as you need it.
Since the gantry is not expensive, it is best to have one for every width.
It would also be good to be able to shift the roles and maybe have more than 4. This would make milling pockets possible again.

The change to a different role system, for example, with a gear and a guide rail placed on top or screwed on is also conceivable.
Here it is also possible to extend the roll holder beyond the body.


I want to control my milling machine with grbl and decided to adapt the Satchakit-grbl from Daniele Ingrassia to my needs.

I have changed the board in such a way that I have omitted everything that was superfluous for me and placed all important connections downwards and to the right. This was the first time I worked with vias. vias give you the opportunity to play on the back of the board.

To do this, I changed the circuit diagram in eagle and then redesigned the circuit board

With gimp I then edited the downloaded image files in order to get the corresponding image templates for the traces, the cutout and the holes in order to be able to upload them to fabmodules afterwards. Here I could also download the three corresponding g-codes for the Roland Mill mdx-40 and mill the board. I have already documented the process in more detail in assignment electronics production.

After milling the circuit board, I simulated the milling on the back with a copper-coated adhesive surface. since I wanted the pulse z-y-x connections to be at the bottom, I put them on the back and later connected them with pin headers from top to bottom.

Now I have soldered the components on the board.

Here you can see very well how I connected the top and bottom with the pinheaders.



Short circuit: I had chosen the settings in fab modules a bit unfavorable. In retrospect, I saw that the errors were already visible in the preview. the cutter did not cut through at the marked places.

Since I wanted to leave out everything that was superfluous, I unfortunately also disposed of sck and miso. I had to reattach them afterwards. To do this, I drilled a small hole with the Proxxon directly on the pins of the microprocessor and also laid it down. now I had all the connections to burn the bootloader.

program the board

The Satchakit-GRBL instructions from Daniele Ingrassia helped me with programming.

First of all, I connected everything once and checked whether everything was being supplied with electricity.

To upload the Arduino isp I disconnected the new board from the power by disconnecting gnd and vcc.

After uploading the arduino isp, I uploaded the bootloader to the new board.

load up GRBL

Then I played Grbl on the board.

Now the board is ready for use!

prepare the motors

- limit-switchess

testing motordrivers, motors and endstop with satshakit, GRBL and cncjs 1.9.22

Change end stops in GRBL on the termination board.

y-z-axis construktion prozess


Bought by aliexpress

Also available at openbuilds.

download the STEP files - GRABCAD

First look in MOI.
S The milling spindle

Adaptation of the GRABCAD files to my needs in Fusion 360.

design and install the printed motor mount.

construction site router - corpus

system integration and packaging

test framework for the rolling gantry

8.Computer controlled machining

As a preventive measure, I went two-pronged on the project. I would have liked to follow up on this version to show system integration and packaging. But since I work full-time as a teacher and constantly had to compute with shutdowns, I have created alternatives so that I have the possibility to finish. The unpredictability of the situation is now due to the fact that I am pursuing the other version, as there was a shutdown at an important point in my schedule.

8.Computer controlled machining

In order to work towards my final project, I would like to test the corpus parametrically reduced with OSB.

I am also interested in what surcharge I have to give in order to make the connections tight or tight, but also to be able to loosen them again.


I created the body parametrically in fusion 360 so that I can later adapt it to my machine.

Based on the finished drawing, I now use the nesting plugin, which can be installed in fusion 360.

Next I put in the X axis. Here I notice that the ball bearings also need more air so that I can change the axles later. I think 0.4mm will work.

Since it is very easy to change the axis, it is also easy to change the drive.

But you can also have two different systems on one axis and, if necessary, switch to a rail system with a rack, for example.
This could be placed on a plate or screwed. The machine would still only be put on.

cutting wood for the corpus

Since we did not always have access to the lab due to one or the other shutdown, I saw the boards to size for reasons of time instead of milling a body.

shorten the Z-axis

assembly z axis

assembly of the body, Y-, Z-axis, Z-motor and milling spindle holder


Since I do not have access to the Fablab at the moment, I continue to work on the machine in the basement and in my pandamic shut down lab.

In order to be able to mount the rollerblade wheels firmly on the bar, I designed brackets for the right and left, which I can attach with screws. I now glue these with a two-component adhesive in a form-fitting manner to the place where the ball bearings were originally.

I insert them into the rod holders designed for this purpose.

In order to tension the toothed belt, I use a quick release, which is often used on bicycles, as I did when picking up the milling spindle. I would have liked to have milled the elongated holes, but under the difficult circumstances I made them with a drill and a jigsaw.

elektronics/wire up

attaching the power supply and the pcb

with the specially designed and printed parts

attaching the printed cable cover

adapting grabcad gears to my needse

attaching the drag chain

adjust the axes in grbl¶

pen holder with clay weight

draw test - hello world

first milling



low tec non-slip guide rails to lay on

Since I had a lot of ideas in the previous assignments, which from my point of view were worth pursuing, now let’s see how far I can push it.

As already described in week 8, the axle can easily be removed and additional subsystems can be added. I wanted to do the test here.

I was able to add the additional system in just over half an hour.

I tried to adjust the sizes to the inline rollers so that the gear wheel does not rest when the inline rollers are used.

In conjunction with a GT5 toothed belt, however, the height should be just as high so that the settings in the GRBL do not have to be changed. The roll dimensions therefore remain the same.

The Festtol rail system is the inspiration here. If possible, the rails should simply be placed at the right distance and, due to their own weight and the non-slip plastic on the underside of the rail, fix themselves in such a way that the machine can work with a high degree of accuracy.

In this case I screwed it in first.

more low tec => costs => test an alternativ Y-Axis

low tec guide rail made of mdf and low-friction adhesive tape

Since the machine is in the low tec and minimal range, I thought I should still deal with the y-axis. At around 100 euros (excluding postage), this represents a not insignificant proportion of the total costs.

When I discovered the iglidur tribo tapes, I thought to myself that one should make tests for plain bearings with it. However, since the tape costs around 3 euros per meter, my next thought was to first reduce the friction on the guide with edge bumpers and then apply the tribotape to the connection at the connection points. Here i made a few attempts to get the right distance in all directions.
Of course, it would make sense if you could make a fine adjustment. The experience of my instructor Ferdi was a great help when it came to fine-tuning. It should be mentioned that a change of 0.5mm can change the range from too narrow to perfect.
The guide rail is also milled to the exact thickness so that the inaccuracies of the panel do not lead to jamming.
Whether the material MDF is well suited in the long term remains to be tested. I think with normal humidity, without the water getting to the material, it should work well.
I think in this case you can stay with the linear guide for less than 10 euros per 1.5 meters.
However, there are now materials that look exactly like MDF and that no longer react to moisture. Such as the waterproof Tricoya MDF.

First of all, I took the Mdf here as an example for testing. I think this can be used in conjunction with other materials to achieve even more great results.
For example on aluminum instead of wood or with 3d printed slides in which the tribo tape is inserted.

2D lettering corpus silhuette FA21

all questions and answers

I have already answered many questions in the documented process, but they are not chronological and not complete. For this reason everything can be found here again in brief.

What does it do?

Milling wood and more.

Who’s done what beforehand?

What parts and systems were made?

I build a frame, design and build the x-axis, mill and solder the pcb, design and print the cable cover, machine bracket, pen holder and fastening materials.

What processes were used?

I build a frame, design and build the x-axis, mill and solder the pcb, design and print the cable cover, machine bracket, pen holder and fastening materials.

What questions were answered?

It shows that the machine works relatively precisely and that this low tec variant could be even more precise with some improvements and features.

What worked? What didn’t?

At a size of 30 x30 cm, the machine will work accurately enough for woodworkers. The attempt to mill a PCB looked very promising, but is not yet standard. Milling large panels with it, as initially envisaged, is not yet possible with the degree of accuracy that this machine, the body of which was created on my circular sawing in the basement, is not yet possible. if you move back and forth several times, zero shifts from x and y by a few millimeters.

How was it evaluated?

I think I will pursue the idea of ​​a guide rail that is placed on or screwed onto the workpiece. In this case, as before, everything should only be reversible, but the accuracy should be increased considerably.

What are the implications?

There is still work to be done.

bill of materials

I think the machine will cost around 800 Euros, because I took some consumables, such as screws, from my supply.

Qty name suplier price[€]
1 C-Beam aliExpress 116,14
1 C-Beam-Profile 1000mm CNC-AXIS-Assembly Kid aliExpress 91,19
1 Mafell-Spindel Amazon 272,51
1 OSB-Plate Bauhaus 13,82
3 Shaft coupler ebay 15,94
2 Nema 24 Stepper Motor ebay 74,84
1 Nema 23 Stepper Motor ebay 18,92
1 DC 12V 24V LED Power supply amazon 20,09
1 Verbatim PLA amazon 24,99
1 12 Pin PCB Screw Green Terminal Block amazon 11,59
1 Cable drag chain amazon 19,61
1 ball-bearing amazon 8,68
4 Inliner rolls amazon 20,00
1 precision shaft ebay 20,38
1 locknuts-hammer head amazon 11,99
3 TB6600 Stepper Motor Driver amazon 32,99
3 Gt2 toothed belt ebay 16,54

What materials and components were used?

Where did they come from?

How much did they cost?

The following photos show most of the materials that are required.

Bought by aliexpress



Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag
Dieses Werk ist lizenziert unter einer Creative Commons Namensnennung - Nicht-kommerziell - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 4.0 International Lizenz.

Last update: July 25, 2021