Skip to content

16. Applications and implications

  • Propose a final project masterpiece that integrates the range of units covered
  • Describe it in as much detail

Final project idea

My idea for a final project is a device that gives the user detailed information about the accuracy and positions of putts. Putting is by far the most important part of the game of golf and this one single skill can make or break a score. According to Golf Digest, “we use the putter 41.3% of the time”. This means that in a single round, we could expect 41.3% of every single shot that is hit to be a putt. This highlights the immense importance of this facet of the game. The device I am proposing is a putting aid that will help the player improve their score. It will provide statistics and information about missed putts such as average distance missed, percentage of putts within a certain distance of the hole, and the most common type of miss (too short, too hard, or to the side).

What has been done before?

The thing that I found that is closest to what I am attempting to make is the RoboCup by Vat19. My sister, mom, and I actually bought this for my dad as a Father’s Day gift a couple of years ago. This device is very rudimentary and is basically a push button with a catapult. The basic idea of my device will be similar with the usage of the push button and catapult, although it will be much more sophisticated

What will you design?

I will design everything that is not bought. The most important aspect of this all the boards I use. I have designed and fabricated my own sensor boards, output board, and master board. I designed all of these in EAGLE and actually milled them out on our PCB milling machines. I will also make everything that I 3D-print including the sensor boards mount and the actual device case.

Components and materials

Bill of materials

Item Quantity Cost (each) In lab or purchased? Link
VL53L1X breakout board 2 $11.95 Purchased link
Servo motor 1 $7.60 In lab link
ATtiny1614 (SMD) 3 $0.78 In lab link
ATtiny412 (SMD) 1 $0.51 In lab link
4.7K Ω resistor (SMD) 4 $0.10 In lab link
330 Ω resistor (SMD) 4 $0.52 In lab link
LED (SMD) 4 $0.31 In lab link
Male header pins (SMD) 44 $0.1175 In lab link (comes in sets of 36)
5V regulator (SMD) 1 $0.51 In lab link
Single-sided PCB sheet 1 $1.40 In lab link (pack of 25)
AA batteries 4 $0.92 In lab link
Battery case holder 1 $2.99 In lab link
Female to female jumper cables ~25 $0.21 In lab link (pack of 50)
Royal Blue Prusament 1 $24.99 In lab link
BLUETOOTH MODULE (EITHER HC-05 OR HM-10) 1 n/a Purchased n/a

Where will they come from?

I have included all the links above

How much will they cost?

I have included all the costs above

What parts and systems will be made?

I will make all the boards, the sensor mounts, the device case, the interface,

What processes will be used?

I will incorporate several processes in my final project such as:

  • Electronics design

  • Electronics production

  • 3D-printing

  • Embedded networking and communication

  • Interface programming

  • Molding and casting

Electronics design and production

This is probably the most important part of the project. I will have at least 2 distance sensors and 1 or 2 servo motors. I will also need a master board which will receive all of this information and categorize it in one place. This is clearly electronics design and production since I will be designing and making all of these boards myself.


I will use 3D-printing in this project to make a case for the device and sensor mounts for on the servo. I will need a case for everything so that no wires, boards, or anything else is exposed. I will make a case that can easily be taken on and off, probably either snap fit or like a screw. The mounts are also important because the distance sensors have to be positioned at a certain angle so that they sense only above the ground and not the ground itself.

Networking and communications

For my final project, I have 2 main modes of communication. The first is for all the sub-boards with servos and sensors to the main board. This will all be done using software serial since I only have 2 built-in Serial ports on an ATtiny1614. This means I will use other available pins and turn them into extra serial pins. The second part will be transferring and transmitting all of that information in the main board to my computer or phone. I will do this using a HC-05 Bluetooth module.

Interface programming

I will use interface programming to display all the recorded ball positions and graph them. For this, I will use Processing, more specifically Processing for Android which is an extensions of traditional Processing that can be used to make apps for Android devices. On this interface, I will also have statistics about the putts such as how many are within a certain distance (e.g. 2 feet) of the hole.

Molding and casting

I will use the molding and casting from Molding and casting week to make my own golf ball instead of using a golf ball I buy.

What questions need to be answered?

I still have to figure out how I am going to find the positions of multiple golf balls instead of just sensing them one by one. As of right now, the idea is that I will hit a ball, the device will sense it, and then I will have to move the ball out of the way to avoid it interfering with the next measurement. This means I have to find a way so that the device ignores a ball it has already sensed and only stops when it senses a new ball at a new positions.

How will it be evaluated?

I will evaluate my project based on how accurate the measurements are and how the results look on the interface. Since this final interface is the part that interacts with the user, I would like the interface to look nice and be user-friendly.