# 3. Computer Aided design¶

I used during the Academy sketch up, rhino, fusion, inkscape, photoshop and illustrator.

What is CAD software? CAD, or computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is a technology for design and technical documentation, which replaces manual drafting with an automated process. If you’re a designer, drafter, architect, or engineer, you’ve probably used 2D or 3D CAD programs such as AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT software. These widely used software programs can help you draft construction documentation, explore design ideas, visualize concepts through photorealistic renderings, and simulate how a design performs in the real world.

## 2D Design¶

### Parametric Islamic Pattern using Grasshopper¶

Islamic geometric patterns are one of the main types of Islamic ornamentation, which appears to resist the use of figurative representations.

Geometric compositions in Islamic art are mostly based on variations of repeated squares and circles, which can be overlapped and interlaced as the arabesques (with which they are often combined) can shape complicated and complex shapes, including a wide range of tessellations.

These may constitute the entire decoration, may form a framework for floral or calligraphic embellishments, or may retreat into the background around other motifs. The sophistication and variation of patterns used developed from basic stars and lozenges in the ninth century, to a variety of 6-to 13-point patterns in the 13th century, and eventually to incorporate 14-and 16-point stars in the 16th century.

My Main goal is to replicate the manual process of drawing using grasshopper to have many options

In 2D design I Used the same steps Arabic Artists use to manually draw these pattern , yet using Parametric program like Grasshopper would help me to do different patterns by changing the parameters.

create circle

ctrl+c ctrlv

divide curve to 12 parts

line between two points

shift list by 1

and shift list by -1

Extend curve

shift list by 1 and shift list by -1

merge and join curve

offset

# 3D design¶

### Voronoi & Weaverbird BOX¶

First of all, we’ll demonstrate you how to use grasshopper 3d and rhino 3d to create a structure and use it to render parametric design using Voronoi & Weaverbird by first adding multiple points on this geometry and converting it into voronoi mesh in grasshopper to use it for parametric modeling and parametric design.

Next, you’ll go through the grasshopper scripting process or the grasshopper concept to create the Voronoi & Weaverbird parametric structure, eventually make the voronoi mesh into the weaverbird type in grasshopper 3d, essentially the surface that you can control with the number sliders. It is an example of parametric design and parametric architecture.

Rhinoceros is a 3d modeling software for architects and designers, and grasshopper is a plugin that is used for virtual scripting for parametric modeling and parametric design in architecture to create parametric facades for building designs. This method is often referred to as computational design and generative design.

## Project in the lab for our beautiful cat ” Techworks”¶

I used adobe illustrator to draw the logo for our lab

illustrator works off vectors, these are points used to create perfectly smooth lines. This program is for creating and editing vector-based work such as graphics, logos, and other design elements. Vectors are scalable images that can be sized as small or as large are you need them to be, but look the same when it comes to clarity and resolution.

Illustrator is not ideal for creating multi-page documents and using the program this way would create some drawbacks. Illustrator doesn’t have a way to setup master pages the way that InDesign does. This is a necessary tool when you’re building documents that use templates. Illustrator also doesn’t allow you to automate page numbers. This is another feature InDesign supports, which can be especially useful when dealing with larger documents.

Photoshop is a bad program to use when creating logos, it will do nothing but cost you time and money. Creating a logo in Photoshop cannot be enlarged or manipulated in the same manner that an Illustrator based logo can. Type will print clearest at vector-based rendering. The Adobe Creative Cloud Package has many different programs to create different art in separate practices.

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you can also use Photoshop for editing some pixel based photos

Photoshop is raster-based and uses pixels to create images. Photoshop is designed for editing and creating photos or raster-based art. When the program was developed it was for photographers, but over time the program has grown to help all kinds of artists to do many different kinds of work. Now Photoshop is known to create interface designs, web pages, banner ads, video graphics, and the original use of editing and creating images for print.

Photoshop is known to be able to do so much and be so easy to learn that it is looked at as a one stop shop, but Photoshop is not the best program for all types of artwork and design.

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for example in my case I used it sometimes to edit PCB sizes you can export the pcb outline and elements each alone or you can do it via photoshop you can also edit and cut the exported image using photoshop before sending it to mods for more info about mods

you start by opening the photo with photoshop rather by dragging it and drop it in the work space ore by [file] > [open] and browse to the needed photo

you can add shapes over those images for example a rectangle

But as you can see this rectangle would be pixel based “look at the corner it shows width “W” and height “H” “”

photoshops deals with shapes and images and even brushes as layers. you can delete and change the order. what is on top will show .

you can also hide layers

and like for example when you export images form eagle sometimes you need to cut the extra part “this will save cupper material”

I used here the cut tool, you can decide how to cut and also edit the image sizes in pixels or millimeters and the resolution.

## Design¶

I chose a pattern to draw and designed which parts will move and which will be made as wood mosaic. for example I used illustrator to find the options I can have.

and after that I used AutoCAD to prepare that laser cut files

this shows the result of using rhino and illustrator and AutoCAD.

for example here I used AutoCAD to deconstruct the pattern I did to pieces so I cut them

you can define the centers of movement

and the rotation

here I draw the first test for the first manual prototype.

## prototyping¶

I did a manual test to verify my idea, what I did is I cut multiple layers with different openings and used MDF and acrylic. later on you will see how more options are available if we duplicated the layers.

the first image shows how all the layers are aligned to achieve closed unit, in the second image I am trying to show that if we moved the middle layer in 30 degree rotation we can achieve an open tile/ unit.

what will happen if we moved half angle? like for example 15 degree ?

we will have more complex shapes.

the following list of videos shows how the project may work. I moved each layer alone and stack them then did it again to see what possibilities I can have .

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this is a gif in case you have bad internet connection.

## laser cutting¶

Those are the results of the 2D designs with laser cutting

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## 3D printing¶

I made the stars using rhino and for that I 3d printed it using SLA formlabs printer then I did a cast.

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