3. Computer Aided design

This week was dedicated to computer aided design, and compressing images and videos.


model (raster, vector, 2D, 3D, render, animate, simulate, ...) a possible final project,
compress your images and videos, and post it on your class page 

CAD softwares

This week I wanted to use multiple softwares to discover them and try to draw with them part of the idea of my final project. Here follows the list of the different softwares and how I used them during the week.

3D - Autodesk Fusion 360

I downloaded the app Autodesk Fusion 360 and register as an education license with my student ID. I only used the design mode to create the different files.

The goal of my final project is to make a teddy bear walk around, so I wanted to draw a skeleton to put inside the teddy bear. First I discovered the software, so I made an easy shape where I will know the final result.

First we have to draw a sketch and then extrude it to make 3D shapes, or directly draw the shape if it is an easy one. With my fellow, I learnt how to use planes and axes in order to draw different sketches on different planes. I used the tool “extrude” to extend the cylinder. To make the body I drew a rectangle an the extrude it, same for the arms and the fingers but on different planes.To make the hat, I had to draw an axes that goes trought the head sphere and then add a plane with the axes. I finally drew a triangle and revolved it.

Following some importants step I made to draw the fellow. I took me a long time to discover each main tools Fusion shows, and how to use it, after two days and multiple formations I was finally able to draw simple shapes.

So first I creatd a cylinder that I copy paste to create a second one, and I moved this one on the same plane using the small square.

I created a line on the side of one cylinder to create a plane that allow me to add diagonal cylinder. First I checked on the construct tool how I can add a plane.

I choosed the plane at angle with the line I add before, and it automatically add the plane I wanted.

In my new plane, I wanted to draw a circle with the same line as my first cylinder. To do it I need the ellipse tool because my plane is intersecting.

After drawing the ellipse I estrude it with estrude tool, with random measure.

To do the body I drew a rectangle and extrude it with offset. The legs and the body are joined now and doing one body.

To do the arms I did the same as the legs and I discovered the mirror tool. To use that tool, I drew a secant plane as a diagonal plane before, and select this plan and the cylinder.

Then I wanted to use create some shapes on my body, I gound the torus tool. To use it I draw circle with constraints. I wanted to have some symetric to discover how to use contraints, so I drew construction line to constraint equals segments.

I added my torus according to the circles.

After added a sphere on the top of me fellow, I wanted to get him a hat. I looked for a way to had a cone but I didn’t know how to had shapes on the surface of the sphere. Among the all tools, I was able to do hole, so I create a 1 mm hole to have a flat stuff.

First I created a line and a plane on the flat but I wasn’t able to draw perpendicularly.

I found a tool the allow me to had axe through the sphere with a point, I choose the center of the hole.

And with this axe, I had another plane with an angle. I moved my plane the round until it fits how I wanted.

I drew a rectangle on this plan.

And here I used the revolve tool to make a cone.

To get my final shape more smooth I used the fillet tool on the hat and the body and I finnally get a shape that feel good.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file training fellow.f3d

Fusion 360 has a rendering function. Here is what my fellow looks like with metal appearance.

About Final project

Now I was able to draw the kind of skeleton I want, so I have sketched the support, and then add the legs on it and extrude everything, and put compartment for the batteries and the eletronic board. For my final project I want the legs walking with servo motors, so I searched servo motors shapes on the gallery of autodesk but I was not able to put them inside my skeleton’s shape. So I have drawn an other shape with parametric values and constraints to be able to use it properly.

Here is the kind of motor I would like to use :

To draw the shape of my skeleton, I first draw some straight lines with the grid, and draw recangles inside.

Then I extrude the rectangles to have cavities for the material.

I add a sketch for the legs, with straight lines and half circles. I add constraint for the center of the circle to coincide.

I copy paste the sketches of the legs to the other side and extrude them as the same way.

I finally rotate all the skeleton.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file project.f3d

With parametric values

One of the goal this week was to design in 3D with parametric values, so I drew again the support of the skeleton with cavities to insert the servo motors.

Parametrics values are written in a sheet as in Excel, they can be changed when the project evolve and we don’t have to model the shape again, it will automatically change with the parametric values. When I edit the sketch, I can modify the parameters in the dialog box.

It opens a sheet and I can create or change the parameters.

And when I constraint the size of the sketch with values, I enter the name of my parameter.

And it take the value I set. The shape turn into a black color, it means that the shape is fully constraint.

After extrude the big rectangle, I did the same with the size. Here I add the cavities depending on the size of my servo motor.

After finishing this size, I wanted to do the same on the opposite size. I found a tool that project shapes on an other surface, which is very useful because I don’t have to draw again the two small rectangles, just project to shape on my surface.

After that I extruded the 4 rectangles and get the final design.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file project parametric.f3d

3D - FreeCad

FreeCad is a freesoftware use to draw 3D model, it is the kind of the free version of Autodesk Fusion 360.

I followed tutorials to know how FreeCad can be used, this one specially, on the FreeCad wiki. With this I tried to draw my board which will have the electronic board on it.

So when I open the software, I create a new project, and select the Part Design mode.

Then I create a new body, chose the plane where I draw the sketch. After drawing a simple shape, I need to add constraint. The shape is white when I draw it. I add constraints like vertical or horizontal line, the size of a line.

When the shape is fully constraint, it turn into a green color.

I fully constraint my shape for my rectangle.

After my 2D shape is done, I can turn it in 3D. In the menu I pad my selected sketch and write the size I want for it.

I want to have some cavities on it to maybe insert servo motor to have the legs moving, so I create a new sketch on one side.

One useful tool is create an edge linked to external geomtry in order to have the outline of the side on my skecth.

Then I draw two rectangles for the side, but I didn’t reach to have the shape in green, I didn’t know how to have some constructions lines like I did with Autocad Fusion 360. So I let the shape in white and try to do hole with it.

I can’t select the shape on my sketch so I directly click on the tool to create a pocket.

And I get lucky because my two rectangles turn into holes. I just have to write the right size.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file for the beginning of the support.FCStd

I stopped the use of FreeCad here because I already did the shape with Autocad Fusion 360 and I found it much easier to do it with this software. The different tools with FreeCad are less instinctive and I spend to much time to do a rectangle board and I still don’t draw the legs.

3D - Blender

Blender is a free software to make 3D drawing and animation. To discover Blender I made a chair.

Here is the final result I made

So the chair looks smooth, and no hard corner.

When I first open the software, there is a cube. I use this cube to make my chair. By default the software open in object mode. To edit the cube I need to be on edit mode. First I made it thinner with the scale tool.

Then I cut it in 2 parts with the loop cut and set 2 cuts, that is where the chair legs will be.

Using again the scale, I move the edges of the cut, and I do it again on the other way to get 4 legs.

To do the 4 legs chair and the back of the chair, I extrude the small squares. I do it twice to create the up of the back of the chair.

Then select the two faces up the chair and select the bridge edge loops. I can add settings to twist it and do many cuts to have a nice shape.

Finally I add modifier on my cube (that is my chair) and generate subdivision surface to make my shape smooth.

I think Blender is a nice software to have animations because there is camera and light tool. We can draw some 3D shapes too, and I find that this software is easier and have more tool to draw smooth shapes.

2D - Inkscape

Inkscape is a free software, where we can draw in 2D

To discover the software, I drew a vectorial drawing with the help of an image from the web. You can find the image here draw by Francesca.ibba00.

To do this panda, I saved my image and then drag and drop into the inkscape window. I used differents layers for my vectorial draw and for the images, I can show only the layers I want.

Then I started to draw the outline of the shape using the bezier curves and straight lines, and I adjusted the points by editing path and nodes and used the different tools until the outline and the shape until they coincide.

The tool is use by grab a point and move it.

Finally I drew circles for the eyes on an other layer and used the difference tool to do perfect shapes for the eyes.

To the an eye, I first drew two circles with the tool to create circles.

Then I select them both and do a boolean operation to do the difference between them.

And here is the result after clicking.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file panda.svg

About Final project

For my final project, my first idea is to laser cut the legs of my robot. So I drew a leg with inkscape.

The drawing has to be a vectorial drawing, in order to avoid pixels and to be used by a laser cutter. I drew bezier cuves and straight lines and then adjust the points (nodes) to do a smooth shapes, I didn’t have time to explore all the tools of inkscape to have parametrics shapes but booleans operations allow me to have a more precise shape.

To download the file, click right and select save the file. Here is the file leg.svg

2D - Paint.net

Paint.net already used on week 02 to resize images and change their quality. I used paint.net to do drawing with pixels, here is the difference we can see with zooming :

raster with paint.net, if we zoom a lot on a line we can see the pixels :

vector done with inkcape, here the line stay smooth :

I drew a shape with the pen tool.

And zoom on it to see the line.

Add files

To show the work I did I wanted to add some files, so I tried many way to add them :

$ <a href="../files/training_bonhomme_v3.f3d">SousTest2</a>

$ <a href="../files/training_bonhomme_v3.f3d" download>Click to Download</a>

$ [myFile.js]({{file name='training_bonhomme_v3.f3d'}})

$ <p>
    "Fusion 360 design: "
    <a href="../files/training_bonhomme_v3.f3d">SousTest2</a>

$ Read more ![here](../files/training_bonhomme_v3.f3d) 

$ Read more [here](../files/training_bonhomme_v3.f3d) 

only the last one is working, but depending on the browser, it open the file as a text like this :

To avoid that we need to do a right click and save the file.

Resize images with Irfanview

All my images were resized and compressed by Irfanview. To compress the image for the web it needs the plugins, so chose the version with all the plugin when Irfanview is about to installed. It is the easiest and the quickest way I found to do it.

To resize and compress an image for the web I open it with Irfanview. Here is the small wolf of my home page

So here we can see that the file currently does 57,6 KB.

I select the resize/resample tool.

And resize for example at 50%.

Then compress it for the web with the tool ‘Save for the web’. Irfanview will optimize the image to be the best for the web.

And finally we see the image is only 10,99 KiB, good to be push on the website.

All the files