# Week2. Computer-Aided Design¶

## Planning¶

According to the assignment requirements, I completed it in two parts:

Step Description Status
1 2D software learning Completed
2 3D software learning Completed

### 1. 2D software learning¶

What is Bitmap images & Vector graphics?

Bitmap images (also known as raster images) are images composed of an array of pixels, where each pixel has a specific position and color value, coming together to present a complete picture. This type of image format is suitable for rich color handling and complex details, commonly seen in photos and web images. A notable characteristic of bitmap images is that enlarging the image can result in pixelation effects, leading to a decline in sharpness and clarity, especially apparent when significantly zoomed in.

Vector graphics, on the other hand, are created with paths (defined by mathematical formulas for lines and curves). These paths, along with how the shapes they define are filled and stroked, collectively delineate a vector image. The greatest advantage of this image format is its capability to be scaled infinitely without loss of clarity, as paths are recalculated based on the scaling ratio. Vector graphics are well-suited for graphics that need to be frequently resized, such as logos, typography, and line art.

The main differences between bitmap and vector images are:

Composition: Bitmap images are made up of pixels, while vector graphics are composed of paths and shapes. Scalability: Bitmap images can lose quality when scaled, whereas vector graphics can be scaled infinitely without distortion. Usage: Bitmap images are commonly used in photography and web design, while vector graphics are typically used in situations that require precise scaling, such as logos, icons, and graphic design.

Content above come from GPT4

This part have two section:

#### A. Raster software¶

##### 1/GIMP¶

What is GIMP?

GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source image editing software with many advanced features comparable to Adobe Photoshop. GIMP is suitable for tasks such as image creation, photo editing, image compositing, and image conversion. It offers a powerful toolkit including painting tools, color adjustment, layers, masks, and filters, which users can utilize for complex image manipulations.

One of the advantages of GIMP is its high customizability and extensibility, allowing users to enhance functionality with the addition of plugins and scripts. It supports multiple operating systems including Linux, Windows, and macOS, making it widely regarded as one of the alternatives to Photoshop. Although its interface may seem complex at first glance, it is extremely powerful, and there are many tutorials and community supports available online to help new users to learn and troubleshoot issues. GIMP is a very practical tool in the field of image processing for both professionals and hobbyists.

Content above come from GPT4

I download it from the website - GIMP and this is how I install Open GIMP, and the interface like this I build a new canvas ans set the size to 1200x1200px and I try to draw some thing

##### 2/Photoshop¶

Adobe Photoshop is a powerful image editing and processing software widely considered as the industry standard in the field of digital imaging. Photoshop was initially developed by Thomas and John Knoll and released in 1988 by Adobe Systems. This software allows users to perform a plethora of operations such as photo retouching, image compositing, digital painting, and 3D image creation.

Its core features include layer control, allowing users to edit elements on individual layers without affecting others; a comprehensive suite of tools comprising brushes, erasers, clone stamps, and more; as well as potent color correction abilities and filter effects. Photoshop also supports advanced functions like color space conversion, content-aware fill powered by deep learning technologies, and seamless integration with Adobe Creative Cloud, enabling efficient collaboration across multiple Adobe products.

Photoshop’s unique plugin system allows third-party developers to create and offer additional tools and functionalities, greatly expanding the software’s application scope and professional capabilities. Whether it’s professional graphic designers, photographers, digital artists, or enthusiasts, Photoshop is regarded as an indispensable tool for creating and editing high-quality image content. As the software evolves with ongoing updates, Photoshop continues to incorporate new features and improvements to meet the rapidly evolving demands of the digital creative industry.

I mainly use phtoshop to make mobile phone wallpaper renderings. First, I download a template from the material website which name is elements envato.

Open PSD template file，find the layer named “Edit Screen here” and double clik,

Then a new page will automatically open, put the JPG image previously made in Illustrator into this new page, then close the tab and select “Save” in the pop-up window.

Then export it to the format used by the web, as shown in the figure.

Then put the exported picture into illustrator for editing, and then output a jpg. like this

#### B. Vector software¶

Adobe Illustrator is a professional vector graphics editing and design software widely used in graphic design, illustration, typography, and various visual arts fields. Developed by Adobe Systems, it offers a vector-based drawing environment that allows designers to create precise, infinitely scalable graphics and illustrations. This means that the graphic quality remains crisp and perfect, no matter how much you change the size, making it an ideal choice for printed materials, online media, and mobile application graphics design. Illustrator offers a rich array of tools and features, such as a path editor, brush libraries, gradients, and pattern fills, supporting the realization of creative ideas. Additionally, it supports cross-platform use and integrates seamlessly with other Adobe software, such as Photoshop and After Effects, thus becoming an essential tool among visual artists and designers. With continuously updated versions, Adobe Illustrator not only adds new functionalities but also optimizes performance to meet the increasingly complex demands of users.

Content above come from GPT4

We call Adobe Illustrator “AI” for short, and I will also call it AI from now on. Next, I will demonstrate using AI to draw an illustration-style computer. First, we use the rectangle tool to draw a rectangle and set a color for it.

Then copy a rectangle and fill it with dark blue as the computer screen Draw a straight line with the Pen Tool and fill it with light blue

Then use the pen tool to draw a horizontal straight line and fill it with light green

Then copy more straight lines and combine them, and you will have finished drawing a computer. The other parts of the picture are also composed of different geometric shapes and straight lines. and here is the file wall paper for phone.ai

In addition, I also made a graphic for the final project for laser cutting.

final_back.dxf

final_front.dxf

final_side.dxf

final_side02.dxf

### 2. 3D software learning¶

This part have two section:

#### A. Onshape¶

Onshape is a modern CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software that offers a fully cloud-based 3D design solution. It allows designers and engineers to create, edit, and collaborate on models via a web browser on any device, without the need for downloading and installing traditional desktop software. Founded in 2012 by members of the original SolidWorks team, Onshape is dedicated to improving product design and engineering processes.

One core feature of Onshape is its collaboration capabilities. Multiple users can work in real time on the same design file, bridging gaps in geographical location and fostering team collaboration. It supports full version control, meaning that users can easily trace back through design histories and manage multiple design variants concurrently.

Onshape offers all the standard features of traditional CAD software, including part modeling, assembly, drawing, and rendering, while also bringing innovative tools and functionalities, such as an intuitive user interface and robust data management capabilities. In addition, Onshape extends its functionality through an app store that provides many third-party applications and service integrations, allowing users to tailor the software to specific needs.

Suitable for businesses of all sizes, from startups to large corporations, Onshape aims to improve agility and the pace of innovation through its cloud infrastructure and collaborative tools. It frees engineers from being tied to specific hardware or locations, enabling anytime, anywhere access to design projects, thereby enhancing the flexibility and efficiency of their work.

Content above come from GPT4

Onshape is an online tool, so there is no need to download it. This is one of the reasons why I like to use this tool. You only need to open the web page and register to start using it.

After opening the software, you can click the create button and you can create a file document or a folder

If you are not familiar with basic operations, you can go to the official go to learning center. The facade introduces almost all basic operations in detail.

now we into the operation interface, and sketch to excrude:

Click on sketch, draw a rectangle on top view, and press the teal check mark.

and here is the model Use Sketchpad to render week2.stl

#### B. Fusion 360¶

What is fusion 360?

Autodesk Fusion 360 is a powerful, cloud-based 3D modeling software designed to meet a multitude of needs within the product development process. This software provides designers, engineers, and manufacturing experts with a suite of tools to go from conceptual design to final product testing. By integrating CAD (Computer-Aided Design), CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing), and CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) into a single platform, users are able to complete design verification, performance analysis, assembly, and manufacturing planning all within one software environment.

Users can utilize Fusion 360 for 3D modeling, creating and editing complex geometries and surfaces, and it also supports the generation of 2D drawings. The software offers advanced simulation capabilities, such as static stress and thermal analysis, to help engineers evaluate product design performance before manufacturing. With its CAM features, users can directly plan machining pathways in Fusion 360, making a seamless transition from design to production. Additionally, the software supports collaboration, allowing team members to share project data in real time, track version history, and collaborate remotely, greatly improving project flexibility and efficiency.

Fusion 360 features an intuitive user interface that is easy to learn and suitable for users of different skill levels. As a product of Autodesk, it incorporates years of the company’s experience in design and manufacturing, making it applicable to a range of fields including industrial design, mechanical design, electronics design, and tool design. With its flexible subscription model, offering both a free version for personal use and paid versions for commercial purposes, Fusion 360 can meet the needs of enterprises of all sizes as well as individual hobbyists.

Content above come from GPT4

Below I show how to make a component with a center hole with rounded corners.

Also use sketch mode to draw a rectangle, and then use the extrusion tool to extrude the rectangle.

The extrusion parameters can also be adjusted. Here I set the thickness to 20mm. Click the chamfer tool button and set the chamfer parameters as shown below， Use the same method to set the other side to rounded corners.

Next is drilling. A drilling tool is needed here. He can set the length of the drilling in two ways. The first is to directly click and drag the arrow as shown in the figure below.

The second way is to directly output the length value in the side window. Then it is completed. After completion, it can be exported in different ways, such as rendering, exporting manufacturing files, and making assembly animations.

### What I learned from this week’s course¶

Learned how to distinguish Bitmap images & Vector graphics， I learned 3D modeling software for manufacturing. I had only been exposed to C4D before. I found that these 3D modeling software for manufacturing require more precise parameter settings, and I learned to use new ideas to build a model. This really helps me a lot when it comes to making a part.