Computer Controlled Cutting

Final project - LYFTY

— The presentation slide —

The idea

The idea is to create a robot that carries your things and follows you around the lab,

At this point, i came to the conclusion that i going to make an AGV “Automated Guided Vehicle.”

the automation part will be in the version two, so as for the final project im just making a ground bot

What is an AGV ?

AGV stands for Automated Guided Vehicle. It is a mobile robot that is designed to move materials and products within a manufacturing, warehouse or logistics environment, without the need for human intervention. AGVs are programmed to follow a specific path or route,

Here are some examples:

inspired from these and with some researches i have decided to add some features that suits my requirements

Features of this project

here are some of the features that im hoping to add

with these the vehicle can go latterly also do crab movements which will be a cool feature to have.

will be using a play station 3 controller, or will make a mobile app with mit app inventor

Ultras sonic sensor, for edge detention,

add a scissor lift mechanism to lift things and move them around.

Project planning

This whole project is divided into 4 Phases

Phase 1

the rest of the things will be based on that, after fixing the whole dimension of the bot

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

Phase 6

Phase 1

Mecanum wheel

here the idea is to design a mecanum wheel from scratch, for that I had to learn how it works in detail, for that I referred to some research paper, which you can read it here

  • for this project, i choose this configuration which was easy to fabricate.

Cad design of the wheel

with these learnings, I started designing the wheel in Fusion 360

  • coupling to connect to the motor
  • roller

there are 8 rollers is a single wheel, it is inclined at a 45-degree angle,

the difficult part in designing the wheel was the placement of the roller, but after a lot of attempts I found a way, to design the roller at a 45-degree and cut that hole from the full body, you can see that in the above video

the screw holes were a perfect fit.

the variations in the dia

  • after placing the shaft rods

here I used masking tape as a temporary solution instead of cluing the shafts at holes.

—>that was a success

They fitted perfectly, used a 3mm bolt as a pin for the coupling

inserting heat shrink tube
after assembly, all the contact points are having the grip

Phase 2

CAD designing

in this design, i have decided to use 3D printing laser cutting, and CNC milling

  1. Chassis

Based on the calculations done and the operational principles of a mecanum wheel, it is expected that the 45-degree angled rollers should meet at the center point. Therefore, when diagonal lines are drawn from each wheel, they should intersect at the midpoint, as designed below.

the chassis structure with all the necessary holes for mounting motors, frame, and electronics

  1. assembling the motor mounts, DC motors, and wheels

i had to design all these models’ motor mounts, and the DC motors as they were not available online. since it was sourced locally

  1. Designing the frame

the design of the frame is changed to a hybrid model, where some parts are 3D printed and some are laser cut so there is not much wastage of material, and I could use different materials and machining operations as my tutor instructed

  1. Lifting mechanism
  • placement of Dc motor for lifting
  1. Top section
this will be mounted on the scissor lift mechanism

here the top part cover will be laser cut from a 4mm acrylic sheet

  1. Mounting for ultra sonic

The CAD design of the scissor lift was lost, because I didn't save the design in Fusion 360 due to the run of presenting the final project. but fortunately, I have videos of the working mechanism that i fabricated, it will be shared in the final phase.

It sounds like the design is almost complete, and any further modifications will only be made after the parts are fabricated. This is because there are many additional constraints in the real world that may impact the final design, which cannot always be found in a CAD environment.

this was my environment while cad designing xd

Share 2D and 3D design files and project files with anyone.

Phase 3


since the design is almost complete, it is time to fabricate the chassis and assemble the components

laser cutting the chassis on a cardboard “corrugated sheet” sheet

mounted the motors on the cardboard chassis it was more sturdy than I expected.

  • the cardboard was torn when i mounted all the wheels and motors, this was purely done out of curiosity.

Phase 4


-micro-controller using: ESP WROOM 32D

-need to connect an ultrasonic, so design pins for echo and trigger

-there are 5 DC motors four 60 RPM motors and one 150 RPM motor so to control the speed of that we need PWM controllers (PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation, A PWM controller is a device that uses a pulse-width modulated signal to control power applications).

-Led for indications

The schematic diagram

here I had to design and two-layered PCB as there were lots of lines intersecting.

this will be a bit complicated process while milling it

  • the trace for the top side

There is a specific groove or cutout shape on the board that has been designed to hold the PCB securely in place when it is flipped over. This ensures that the board remains in the exact position needed for the next step.

Flip vertical back tracing
for the final Edge cut

  • here we can see the corner is secured tightly
Front side
Back side

the copper wire used


the PCB is working, and the internal LED has blinked

programming with FTDI programmer

placed tape on all the motor shafts to see the direction of the motor

  • paced the PCB of the acrylic chassis and wired all the connections to the motor using ribbon cables and labeled it

Phase 5

Frame / Lifting mechanism / Assembly

Before assembling the scissor lift

Top part attachments

  • these are made of laser cut 6mm acrylic sheet

Phase 6


// Configuration

//PINs --------------------------------------
// Motor Driver Pins-----------

// Left Front
#define LEFT_FRONT_FW 32
#define LEFT_FRONT_BW 33

// Left Back
#define LEFT_BACK_FW 25
#define LEFT_BACK_BW 26

// Right Front
#define RIGHT_FRONT_FW 27
#define RIGHT_FRONT_BW 16

// Right Back
#define RIGHT_BACK_FW 23
#define RIGHT_BACK_BW 22

// Lift
#define LIFT_UP 17
#define LIFT_DOWN 16

// Ultrasonic Sensors Pins ---
#define US_TRIGGER 18
#define US_ECHO 19

// LED Pins
#define LED_GREEN 5
#define LED_YELLOW 4

// Movements

#define FRONT 1
#define BACK 2
#define LEFT 3
#define RIGHT 4
#define CW 5
#define CCW 6
#define STOP 7

#define UP 8
#define DOWN 9

// Initialise Motor

void init_IO() {




  pinMode(LIFT_UP, OUTPUT);

  // Ultrasonic Sensors

  pinMode(US_ECHO, INPUT);

void int_sequence() {

  for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(LED_YELLOW, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, LOW);
    digitalWrite(LED_YELLOW, LOW);
  digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, HIGH);

refer to this documentation for controlling Control ESP32 with a PS3 controller


Design files