2D design


Adobe Photoshop is software that is extensively used for raster image editing, graphic design and digital art. It makes use of layering to allow for depth and flexibility in the design and editing process, as well as provide powerful editing tools, that when combined, are capable of just about anything. It was created by brothers Thomas and John Knoll in 1988. In 1989, John sold the program to Adobe Systems, which marketed it as “Photoshop.” Since then, the program has become the de facto industry standard for raster graphics editing. It is published for both macOS and Windows, but not Linux. Photoshop is specifically designed to allow users to create and edit raster images in multiple layers. These overlays or layers can support transparency and can also act as masks or filters that can alter underlying images in the layers below them. Shadows and other effects such as alpha compositing can be applied. It is also possible of apply several color models to these layers – CMYK, RGB, Spot Color, and Duotone and Lap color space.



Adobe Illustrator is a software application for creating drawings, illustrations, and artwork using a Windows or MacOS computer. Illustrator was initially released in 1987 and it continues to be updated at regular intervals, and is now included as part of the Adobe Creative Cloud. Illustrator is widely used by graphic designers, web designers, visual artists, and professional illustrators throughout the world to create high quality artwork. Illustrator includes many sophisticated drawing tools that can reduce the time need to create illustrations.

How Adobe Illustrator is Used

Adobe Illustrator is used to create a variety of digital and printed images, including cartoons, charts, diagrams, graphs, logos, and illustrations. Illustrator allows a user to import a photograph and use it as a guide to trace an object in the photograph. This can be used to re-color or create a sketch-like appearance of a photograph. Illustrator also makes it possible to manipulate text in many ways, making Illustrator a useful tool for creating postcards, posters, and other visual designs which use text and images together. Illustrator’s ability to place text around a curve is especially useful for artists creating logos. Illustrator is also used in designing mock-ups which show what the website will look like when it’s completed, and creating icons used within apps or websites.

Vector Graphics in Adobe Illustrator

One of Adobe Illustrator’s most important features is that the quality of artwork created using Illustrator is independent of the resolution at which it is displayed. This means that an image created in Illustrator can be enlarged or reduced without sacrificing image quality. This is an attribute of vector artwork, which uses mathematical relationships in describing lines, arcs, and other parts of an illustrator. By comparison, photographs edited using tools such as Adobe Photoshop are resolution-dependent, and image quality decreases when an image is enlarged. A vector graphic is a set of polygons that make up the image, which are in turn composed of vectors. Each vector passes through a location known as a node or control point, which has a defined location on the x and y axes on a plane. This node determines the vector’s path, which has various attributes such as color, curve, fill, shape and thickness. The position of vectors can be related to each other by mathematical formulas, which precisely recalculate their position when an image is resized. This property of vector graphics is different when compared to imaging software such as Photoshop, which uses pixel grids to render images. When this type of image is scaled up sufficiently, the individual pixels comprising a bit map become visible. This phenomenon results in a loss of image quality known as pixilation, which makes Illustrator especially advantageous for creating large images such as a billboard sign.


3D design

Inventor is computer-aided design (CAD) software developed by Autodesk. It uses the concept of parametric design, used primarily to create technical drawings for mechanical purposes.It is found in many fields such as automotive, architecture, construction, etc. Created in 1982 by John Walker and 12 partners, Autodesk was the first CAD company to go public. It publishes a variety of software suites including AutoCAD, 3ds Max, and Alias.


Autodesk 3ds Max is primarily, although not completely, based on polygon modeling. Polygon modeling is used more extensively in game design than in other animation application as it offers a highly specific control over individual polygons that make up the model. This feature of polygon modeling also allow for greater optimization of the model. Usually, the design process begins at the selection of a primitive model bundled with 3ds, which is then further refined as per need. The current versions have a simplified mesh editing interface and using the ‘edit poly’ modifier which moves the tools available in the primitive model, higher in the modifier stack, allowing them to be used on top of other modifications. In the 3ds Max software various unique primitive shapes such as teapots, cones, pyramids and cubes are available which can be used as a base for model development.


Although polygons are the method of choice for model building, surfaces are easier to define using other methods. 3ds Max’s subdivision surface support allows for smoothened surfaces and with the use of tools like Soft Selection, which allows manipulation of vertex clouds into the desired shape without distortions from unwanted shapes and displaying smooth surfaces. The sculpting brush feature allows smooth surfaces to be drawn by hand, if polygons give a distorted image, although functionality is limited. The NURBs feature of Autodesk 3ds allows smooth surface rendition by use of mathematical formulae and is of greatest use to in accurate simulation of mechanical parts. This is of greatest use in applications such as automobile design and instrument design. 3ds Max allows the use of custom lighting and shadows and highlights can also be ‘burned’ into the image rendered. These settings are mostly used for game imagery, since pre-fit values of shadows and highlights allows the game engine to process less data thereby improving game speed and performance as the model is already painted with the required modifications.


Fusion 360 is a cloud-based CAD/CAM tool for collaborative product development. Fusion 360 enables exploration and iteration on product ideas and collaboration within distributed product development team. Fusion 360 combines organic shapes modelling, mechanical design and manufacturing in one comprehensive package.


Fusion 360 helps students and educators prepare for the future of design. It's the first 3D CAD, CAM, and CAE tool of its kind, connecting your entire product development process into one cloud-based platform. Download the software today, then turn your ideas into reality.



  • The use and exploitation of the different types of software that have been presented I have used in recent years, however it is very difficult to master one hundred percent. What is presented is an approach to each of them and how I use them to obtain examples aimed at the manufacture of the final project.
  • Based on the experience I have from my profession, the recommendation is to learn specific software and identify all the tools so that in this way you can venture into the use of other programs by searching for similar tools.
  • The modeling presented has a basic level in terms of the development of the final project, different programs were explored to find the ease of organic digital modeling. The recommendation is to master both mechanical modeling and organic modeling software.
  • Using software that is loaded in a cloud is one of the most appropriate options when working with innovation currently, the best finding I had was Fusion 360.
  • I will not share all the files because I am using some of them for my academic research.